This book aims to provide a general manual of English Literature for .. Romanticism, which in general prevails in modern literature, lays most. The poems below are available in either The Longman Anthology of British Literary. History (Winter ): Sarah Cole, “Modernism, Male. English literature sustained within the matrix of publishing and .. The studies in media and book history that form Laurel Brake's Print in.
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Bedk'S Ecclesiastical History. ALFRKD, founder of. English prose ; .. passage of modern poetry, say afew lines from Tennyson's. Passing of. History of English Literature The Modern Age in English Literature started from the important characteristic of Modern Literature is that it is. History of English Literature (from Romanticism to Modern Period) [Электронный ресурс]: учебное пособие / Л.Л. Шевченко. – Барнаул: АлтГПУ,
Well-educated European and North American middle-classes read more than ever before. At the same time authors tended toward plainer language and more broadly understood themes. People read about detectives, ghosts, machines, wonders, adventures, tricky situations, unusual turns of fate and romances.
Love stories and grudges, explorations and wars, ideas based on scientific positivism and ideas based on nonsense and gibberish were all being published and enjoyed by a readership which could now be termed "the masses". In Nathaniel Hawthorne died. Dostoyevski published Notes from Underground or Letters from the Underworld. Dostoyevski's concerns and style were singularly original and allow the reader entry to a claustrophobic interior world of the psyche.
It is probably correct to describe Dostoyevski as the first Existentialist author.
In Lewis Carroll published Alice's Adventures in Wonderland , combining social satire with nonsense writing and presenting the two of them in the guise of a children's story.
Thomas Chandler Haliburton died. Edith Maude Eaton was born. In Leo Tolstoy published War and Peace. Mark Twain published Innocents Abroad. Matthew Arnold set a cultural agenda in his book Culture and Anarchy.
His views represented one of two polar opposites which would be in struggle against each other for many years to come. The other side of the struggle would be represented by the Aesthetic , Symbolist or Decadent movement. On the other side were Matthew Arnold , John Ruskin and the tendency amongst the arts toward a utilitarian , constructive and educational ethic.
In general, there was a disdain for most of the literary production of the last century. The French Symbolists were admired for the sophistication of their imagery. In comparison to much of what was produced in England and America, the French were ahead of their time. They were similarly unafraid to delve into subject matter that had usually been taboo for such a refined art form.
Hopkins, for his part, brought a fresh way to look at rhythm and word usage. He more or less invented his own poetic rhythms, just as he coined his own words for things which had, for him, no suitable descriptor.
Hopkins had no formal training in poetry, and he never published in his lifetime. This model — the self-taught artist-hermit who has no desire for public adulation — would become synonymous with the poet in the modern age.
This stereotype continues unrivaled to this day, despite the fact that the most accomplished poets of the Modern period were far from recluses. Even though alienation was a nearly universal experience for Modernist poets, it was impossible to escape some level of engagement with the world at large. Even if this engagement was mediated through the poetry, the relationship that poets had with their world was very real, and very much revealing of the state of things in the early twentieth century.
Leading up to the First World War, Imagist poetry was dominating the scene, and sweeping previous aesthetic points of view under the rug. The Imagists, among them Ezra Pound, sought to boil language down to its absolute essence. To achieve that effect required minimalist language, a lessening of structural rules and a kind of directness that Victorian and Romantic poetry seriously lacked.
Dreaminess or Pastoral poetry were utterly abandoned in favor of this new, cold, some might say mechanized poetics. Imagist poetry was almost always short, unrhymed, and noticeably sparse in terms of adjectives and adverbs. At some points, the line between poetry and natural language became blurred.
This was a sharp departure from the ornamental, verbose style of the Victorian era. Gone also were the preoccupations with beauty and nature. Potential subjects for poetry were now limitless, and poets took full advantage of this new freedom. No Modernist poet has garnered more praise and attention than Thomas Stearns Eliot. Born in Missouri, T. Eliot would eventually settle in England, where he would produce some of the greatest poetry and criticism of the last century.
Eliot picked up where the Imagists left off, while adding some of his own peculiar aesthetics to the mix.
His principal contribution to twentieth century verse was a return to highly intellectual, allusive poetry. He looked backwards for inspiration, but he was not nostalgic or romantic about the past. Yet even when his poetic voice sounds very colloquial, there is a current underneath, which hides secondary meanings. It is this layering of meanings and contrasting of styles that mark Modernist poetry in general and T.
Eliot in particular. It is no overstatement to say that Eliot was the pioneer of the ironic mode in poetry; that is, deceptive appearances hiding difficult truths. In American Literature, the group of writers and thinkers known as the Lost Generation has become synonymous with Modernism.
In the wake of the First World War, several American artists chose to live abroad as they pursued their creative impulses. Scott Fitzgerald, and the painter Waldo Pierce, among others. The term itself refers to the spiritual and existential hangover left by four years of unimaginably destructive warfare. The artists of the Lost Generation struggled to find some meaning in the world in the wake of chaos. For Hemingway, this meant the abandonment of all ornamental language.
His novels are famous for their extremely spare, blunt, simple sentences and emotions that play out right on the surface of things. There is an irony to this bluntness, however, as his characters often have hidden agendas, hidden sometimes even from themselves, which serve to guide their actions.
All truth became relative, conditional, and in flux. The War demonstrated that no guiding spirit rules the events of the world, and that absolute destruction was kept in check by only the tiniest of margins. The novel was by no means immune from the self-conscious, reflective impulses of the new century.
Modernism introduced a new kind of narration to the novel, one that would fundamentally change the entire essence of novel writing. At the same time, the psychoanalytic theories of Sigmund Freud had come into mainstream acceptance.
Experimentation with genre and form was yet another defining characteristic of Modernist literature. Perhaps the most representative example of this experimental mode is T. Literary critics often single out The Waste Land as the definitive sample of Modernist literature.
In it, one is confronted by biblical-sounding verse forms, quasi-conversational interludes, dense and frequent references which frustrate even the most well-read readers, and sections that resemble prose more than poetry. At the same time, Eliot fully displays all the conventions which one expects in Modernist literature.